Distinction between the inclusive and exhaustive definitions of words and phrases in law

The Supreme Court of India in Bharat Cooperative Bank (Mumbai) Limited vs. Employee Union (2007) 4 SCC 685, wherein the court has tried to distinguish between the inclusive and exhaustive definitions and held that the intention behind using the word “includes” in the definition of various statues is to not to restrict the definition.

The relevant context of the aforesaid judgement is reproduced below for your easy reference:

When the word "includes" is used in the definition, the legislature does not intend to restrict the definition: it makes the definition enumerative but not exhaustive. That is to say, the term defined will retain its ordinary meaning but its scope would be extended to bring within it matters, which in its ordinary meaning may or may not comprise.

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